Glossary

From RadioNerds
Jump to: navigation, search

TERMS

acknowledge
A directive from the originator of a communication requiring the address(s) to advise the originator that his communication has been received and understood. This term is normally included in the electronic transmission of orders to ensure the receiving station or person confirms the receipt of the order.


all after
A procedure word meaning, “The portion of the message to which I have referenced is all that follows (insert text).” See also procedure word.


all before
A procedure word meaning, “The portion of the message to which I have reference is all that precedes (insert text).” See also procedure word.


area of operations
(joint) An operational area defined by the joint force commander for land and maritime forces. Areas of operations do not typically encompass the entire operational area of the joint force commander, but should be large enough for component commanders to accomplish their missions and protect their forces. (JP 3-0)


authenticate
A procedure word meaning, “The station called is to reply to the challenge which follows (insert text)”.


authentication
A security measure designed to protect a communications system against acceptance of a fraudulent transmission or simulation by establishing the validity of a transmission, message, or originator.


authentication is
A procedure word meaning, “ The transmission authentication of this message is “ (insert text).” See also procedure word.


azimuth
(joint) Quantities may be expressed in positive quantities increasing in a clockwise direction, or in X, Y coordinates where south and west are negative. They may be referenced to true north or magnetic north depending on the particular weapon system used.


bandwidth
(joint) The difference between the limiting frequencies of a continuous frequency expressed in hertz (cycles per second). The term bandwidth is also loosely used to refer to the rate at which data can be transmitted over a given communications circuit. In the latter usage, bandwidth is usually expressed in either kilobits per second or megabits per second. (JP 1-02)


beam width
(joint) The angle between the directions on either side of the axis, at which the intensity of the radio frequency field drops to one-half the value it has on the axis. (JP 1-02)


break
A procedure word meaning, “I here by indicate the separation of the text from another portion of the message.” See also procedure word.


call sign
(joint) Any combination of characters or pronounceable words, which identifies a communication facility, a command, an authority, an activity, or a unit; used primarily for establishing and maintaining communications. (JP 1-02)


clear
To eliminate transmissions on a tactical radio net in order to allow a higher-precedence transmission to occur.


command and control
(Army) The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of a mission. Commanders perform command and control functions through a command and control system. (FM 6-0)


command post
(Army) A unit’s or subunit’s headquarters where the commander and the staff perform their activities. (FM 6-0)


common operating environment
(joint) Automation services that support the development of the common reusable software modules that enable interoperability across multiple combat support applications. This includes segmentation of common software modules from existing applications, integration of commercial products, development of a common architecture, and development of common tools for application developers. (JP 4-01)


communications net
(joint) An organization of stations capable of direct communications on a common channel or frequency. (JP-1.02)


communications intelligence
(joint) Technical information and intelligence derived from foreign communications by other than the intended recipients. (JP 2-0)


communications security
(joint) The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. (JP 6-0)


correct
A procedure word meaning, “You are correct, or what you have transmitted is correct”. See also procedure word.


correction
A procedure word meaning, 1. “An error has been made in this transmission. Transmission will continue with the last word correctly transmitted.” 2. “An error has been made in thes transmission (or message indicated). The correct version is (insert text).” 3. “That which follows is a corrected version in answer to your request for verification.” See also procedure word.


disregard this transmission-out
A procedure word meaning, “This transmission is in error. Disregard it.” (This procedure word shall not be used to cancel any message that has been completely transmitted and for which a receipt or acknowledgement has been received.) See also procedure word.


do not answer
A procedure word meaning, “Stations called are not to answer this call, receipt for this message, or otherwise transmit in connection with this transmission.” When this procedure word is employed, the transmission shall be ended with the procedure word “Out.” See also procedure word.


electromagnetic interference
(joint) Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics and electrical equipment. It can be induced intentionally, as in some forms of electronic warfare, or unintentionally, as a result of spurious emissions and responses, intermodulation products, and the like. (JP 1-02)


electromagnetic pulse

(joint) The electromagnetic radiation from a strong electronic pulse, most commonly caused by a nuclear explosion, that may couple with electrical or electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. (JP 3-13.1)


electromagnetic spectrum
(joint) The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity. It is divided into 26 alphabetically designated bands. (JP 1-02)


electronic protection
(joint) Division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum that degrade, neutralize or destroy friendly combat capability. (JP 3-13.1)


electronic warfare
(joint) Military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. Electronic warfare consists of three divisions: electronic attack, electronic protection, and electronic warfare support. (JP 3-13.1)


electronic warfare support
(joint) Division of electronic warfare involving actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition, targeting, planning, and conduct of future operations. (JP 3-13.1)


emission control
(joint) The selective and controlled use of electromagnetic, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize command and control capabilities while minimizing, for operations security: a. detection by enemy sensors; b. mutual interference among friendly systems; and/or c. enemy interference with the ability to execute a military deception plan. (JP 1-02)


exempt
A procedure word meaning, “The addresses immediately following are exempt from the collective call.” See also procedure word.


figures
A procedure word meaning, “Numerals or numbers follow.” See also procedure word.


flash
A procedure word meaning, “Precedence, FLASH.” Reserved for initial enemy contact reports on special emergency operational combat traffic originated by specifically designated high commanders or units directly affected. This traffic is to be SHORT reports of emergency situations of vital proportions. Handling is as fast as humanely possible with an objective time of 10 minute or less. See also procedure word.


forward line of own troops
(joint) A line that indicates the most forward positions of friendly forces in any kind of military operation at a specific time. The forward line of own troops normally identifies the forward location of covering and screening forces. The FLOT may be at, beyond, or short of the forward edge of the battle area. An enemy


FLOT
indicates the forward-most position of hostile forces. (JP 1-02)


from
A procedure word meaning, “The originator of this message is indicated by the address designator immediately following.” See also procedure word.


groups
A procedure word meaning, “This message contains the number of groups indicated.” See also procedure word.


guard
A procedure word meaning, “A...MHz” radio frequency that is normally used for emergency transmissions and is continuously monitored. UHF band: 243. MHz; VHF band: 121.5 MHz. See also procedure word.


I authenticate
A procedure word meaning, “The group that follows is the reply to your challenge to authenticate.” See also procedure word.


immediate
A procedure word meaning, “Precedence immediate.” The precedence reserved for messages relating to situations which gravely affect the security of national/multinational forces or populace, and which require immediate delivery. See also procedure word.


info
A procedure word meaning, “The addressees immediately following are addressed for information.” See also procedure word.


information superiority
(joint) The operational advantage derived from the ability to collect, process, and disseminate an uninterrupted flow of information while exploiting or denying an adversary’s ability to do the same. (JP 3- 13)


I read back
A procedure word meaning, “The following is my response to your instructions to read back.” See also procedure word.


I say again
A procedure word meaning, “I am repeating transmission or portion indicated.” See also procedure word.


I spell
A procedure word meaning, “I shall spell the next word phonetically.” See also procedure word.


I verify
A procedure word meaning, “That which follows has been verified at your request and is repeated.” (to be used as a reply to “verify”). See also procedure word.


jamming
(Army) The deliberate radiation or reflection of electromagnetic energy to prevent or degrade the receipt of information by a receiver. It includes communications and noncommunications jamming. (FM 2-0)


line of sight (Army)
The unobstructed path from a Soldier/Marine, weapon, weapon sight, electronic-sending and - receiving antennas, or piece of reconnaissance equipment to another point. (FM 34-130)


man portable
(joint) Capable of being carried by one man. Specifically, the term may be used to qualify 1. Items designed to be carried as an integral part of individual, crew-served, or team equipment of the dismounted Soldier in conjunction with assigned duties. Upper weight limit: approximately 14 kilograms (31 pounds). 2. In land warfare, equipment which can be carried by one man over long distance without serious degradation of the performance of normal duties. (JP 1-02)


message
A procedure word meaning, “A message which requires recording is about to follow.” See also procedure word.


more to follow
A procedure word meaning “Transmitting station has additional traffic for the receiving station.” See also procedure word.


multichannel
(joint) Pertaining to communications, usually full duplex, on more than one channel simultaneously. Multichannel transmission may be accomplished by either time-, frequency-, code-, and phase-division multiplexing or space diversity. (JP 1-02)


near real time
(joint) Pertaining to the timeliness of data or information which has been delayed by the time required for electronic communication and automatic data processing. This implies that there are no significant delays. (JP 1-02)


net (communications)
(joint) An organization of stations capable of direct communications on a common channel or frequency. (JP 1-02)


net call sign
(joint) A call sign which represents all stations within a net. (JP 1-02)


net control station
A communications station designated to control traffic and enforce circuit discipline within a given net.


operational environment
(joint) A composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences which affect the employment of military forces and bear on the decisions of the unit commander. (JP 3-0)


out
A procedure word meaning, “This is the end of my transmission to you and no answer is required or expected.” (Since “over” and “out” have opposite meanings, they are never used together.) See also procedure word.


over
A procedure word meaning, “This is the end of my transmission to you and a response is necessary. Go ahead; transmit.” See also procedure word.


phonetic alphabet
(joint) A list of standard words used to identify letters in a message transmitted by radio or telephone. (JP1-02)


priority
A procedure word meaning, “Precedence priority.” Reserved for important messages that must have precedence over routine traffic. This is the highest precedence that normally may be assigned to a message of administrative nature. See also procedure word.


procedure word
A word or phrase limited to radio telephone procedure used to facilitate communication by conveying information in a condensed standard form. Also called proword.


radio listening silence
The situation where radios are on and continuously monitored with strict criteria when a station on the radio network is allowed to break silence. For example, “maintain radio listening silence until physical contact with the enemy is made.”


read back
A procedure word meaning, “Repeat this entire transmission back to me exactly as received.” See also procedure word.


relay to
A procedure word meaning, “Transmit this message to all addressees (or addressees immediately following this proword).” The address component is mandatory when this proword is used. See also procedure word.


roger
A procedure word meaning “I have received your last transmission satisfactorily.” See also procedure word.


routine
A procedure word meaning, “Precedence routine.” Reserved for all types of messages that are not of sufficient urgency to justify a higher precedence, but must be delivered to the addressee without delay. See also procedure word.


say again
A procedure word meaning, “Repeat all of your last transmission.” (Followed by identification data, means “Repeat ________ (portion indicated).”) See also procedure word.


SECRET Internet Protocol Router Network
(joint) The worldwide SECRET-level packet switch network that uses high-speed Internet protocol routers and high-capacity Defense Information Systems Network circuitry. (JP 6-0)


signal
(joint) 1. As applied to electronics, any transmitted electrical impulse. 2. Operationally, a type of message, the text of which consists of one or more letters, words, characters, signal flags, visual displays, or special sounds with prearranged meaning, and which is conveyed or transmitted by visual, acoustic, or electrical means. (JP 1-02)


signal operating instructions
A series of orders issued for technical control and coordination of the signal communication activities of a command.


signal security
A generic term that includes both communications security and electronics security. Measures intended to deny or counter hostile exploitation of electronic emissions. Signal security includes communications security and electronic security.


signal to noise ratio
(joint) The ratio of the amplitude of the desired signal to the amplitude of noise signals at a given point in time. (JP 1-02)


silence
A procedure word meaning, “Cease transmission immediately.” Silence will be maintained until lifted. (Transmissions imposing silence must be authenticated.) See also procedure word.


silence lifted
A procedure word meaning, “Silence is lifted.” (When an authentication system is in force, the transmission lifting silence is to be authenticated.) See also procedure word.


SIPRNET
See SECRET Internet Protocol Router Network.


speak slower
A procedure word meaning, “Your transmission is at too fast a speed. Reduce speed of transmission.” See also procedure word.


TABOO frequencies
(joint) Any friendly frequency of such importance that it must never be deliberately jammed or interfered with by friendly forces. Normally, these frequencies include international distress, CEASE BUZZER, safety, and controller frequencies. These frequencies are generally long standing. However, they may be time-oriented in that, as the conduct or exercise situation changes, the restrictions may be removed. (JP 1- 02)


tactical call sign
(joint) A call sign which identifies a tactical command or tactical communication facility. (JP 1-02)


this is
A procedure word meaning, “This transmission is from the station whose designator immediately follows.” See also procedure word.


time
A procedure word meaning, “That which immediately follows is the time or date/time group of the message.” See also procedure word.


to
A procedure word meaning, “The addressee(s) immediately following is (are) addressed for action.” See also procedure word.


transponder
(joint) A receiver-transmitter which will generate a reply signal upon proper interrogation. (JP 1-02)


Universal Time
(joint) A measure of time that conforms, within a close approximation, to the mean diurnal rotation of the Earth and serves as the basis of civil timekeeping. Universal Time (UT1) is determined from observations of the stars, radio sources, and also from ranging observations of the moon and artificial Earth satellites. The scale determined directly from such observations is designated Universal Time Observed (UTO); it is slightly dependent on the place of observation. When UTO is corrected for the shift in longitude of the observing station caused by polar motion, the time scale UT1 is obtained. When an accuracy better than one second is not required, Universal Time can be used to mean Coordinated Universal Time. (JP 1-02)


unknown station
A procedure word meaning, “The identity of the station with whom I am attempting to establish communications is unknown.” See also procedure word.


urban operations
(Army) Offense, defense, stability, and support operations conducted in a topographical complex and adjacent natural terrain where manmade construction and high population density are the dominant features. (FM 3-0)


verify
A procedure word meaning, “Verify entire message (or portion indicated) with the originator and send correct version.” (To be used only at the discretion of the addressee to which question message was directed.) See also procedure word.


wait
A procedure word meaning, “I must pause for a few seconds.” See also procedure word.


wait out
A procedure word meaning, “I must wait for longer than a few seconds.” See also procedure word.


way point
(joint) A designated point or series of points loaded and stored in a global positioning system or other electronic navigational aid system to facilitate movement. (JP 1-02)


wilco
A procedure word meaning, “I have received your signal, understand it, and will comply.” (To be used only by addressee. Since the meaning of ROGER is included in that of WILCO, the two procedure words are never used together.) See also procedure word.


word after
A procedure word meaning, ”The word of the message to which I have reference is that which follows (insert text).” See also procedure word.


  • word before
A procedure word meaning, “The word of the message to which I have reference is that which precedes (insert text).” See also procedure word.


words twice
A procedure word meaning, “Communication is difficult. Transmit (ring) each phrase (or each code group) twice.” This procedure word may be used as an order, request, or as information. See also procedure word.


wrong
A procedure word meaning, “Your last transmission was incorrect, the correct version is (insert text).” See also procedure word.


Zulu Time
See Universal Time.